Problems with Fallopian Tubes
In women, more than 35% of infertility is caused by problems in the fallopian tubes, the uterus and the cervix.
Most problems involving the fallopian tubes include tubes that are blocked or scarred, with adhesions from previous surgery, previous infections, or ectopic pregnancies.
Problems with the uterus include congenital problems, surgical scarring, and growths such as fibroids and polyps.
Women with a double or heart shaped uterus may conceive without problems, although there is a risk of miscarriage or preterm labor in the later months. A uterus which is tilted or tipped in the backwards position does not cause infertility; this is a normal variation unless other factors are involved.
The cervical mucus is important to fertility because it must be receptive to the partner's sperm. Other problems with female anatomy include narrowing of the cervix, which is called stenosis, insufficient or poor cervical mucus, and infection. Poor cervical mucus may also be caused by antibodies in the cervical mucus.
A number of procedures might be used to evaluate anatomical problems with the fallopian tubes, cervix and uterus. These can include hysterosalpingograhy, laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. The procedures used will depend on you and your physician.